Multiple Sclerosis

MS, multiple cerebro-spinal sclerosis, sclerosis multiplex

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the nervous system that affects communication between the brain and the rest of the body. Its cause is not fully known, but it is associated with an autoimmune reaction in which the immune system attacks the myelin sheaths surrounding the nerves. The symptoms of MS can vary and include vision problems, balance problems, muscle weakness, coordination problems and cognitive difficulties.


Myelin sheaths attacked by the immune system, also called myelin, are the insulating layer surrounding some of the nerves in the nervous system.  Myelin is produced by cells called Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and by glial cells called oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system.


Its main function is to isolate and protect nerve fibers, which enables faster and more effective transmission of nerve signals.  Thanks to myelin, electrical impulses travel much faster along the nerves, which is crucial for the proper functioning of the nervous system.

Without treatment, the disease may lead to worsening symptoms and subsequent exacerbations, called relapses. These flare-ups can lead to permanent nerve damage, which in turn can result in permanent neurological deficits.  Additionally, untreated multiple sclerosis can lead to difficulties in everyday functioning, such as problems with movement, balance, vision and cognitive functions.


  • slow loss of ability to move any parts of the body
  • paralysis of body parts
  • slow loss of ability to walk
  • chronic weakness
  • difficulties in speaking


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